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EST, EDT, US Eastern Time, New York. CST, CDT, US PST, PDT, US Pacific Time, Los Angeles. BST, British Summer Time, London Pick date and cities. Location of England (dark green). – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the United Kingdom . The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from , years and the date of Easter, but more significantly, about the differences in Roman "Shifting Identities – statistical data on ethnic identities in the US". School holidays map shows difference in dates and duration around Earlier this month it was revealed that half of parents around the UK are.
Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy 's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans. The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudiussubsequently conquering much of Britainand the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.
Later, an uprising led by BoudicaQueen of the Iceniended with Boudica's suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street. According to Bedemissionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church. There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimatheawhile others claim through Lucius of Britain.
This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church. Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age.
The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement. Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, disappeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from onwards.
During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including NorthumbriaMerciaWessexEast AngliaEssexKent and Sussex. Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued.
Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.
Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw. A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by his son Cnut inturning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.
However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage.
The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century  and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.
During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War. In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.
Competing with Spainthe first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke.
The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. During the Elizabethan periodEngland was at war with Spain.
Gradually political power shifted away from the old Tory and Whig landowning classes towards the new industrialists.
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An alliance of merchants and industrialists with the Whigs would lead to a new party, the Liberalswith an ideology of free trade and laissez-faire. In Parliament passed the Great Reform Actwhich began the transfer of political power from the aristocracy to the middle classes. In the countryside, enclosure of the land was driving small farmers out.
Towns and cities began to swell with a new urban working class. Few ordinary workers had the vote, and they created their own organisations in the form of trade unions. Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, British dominance of much of world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many regionssuch as Asia and Latin America. During the century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, causing significant social and economic stresses.
CanadaAustraliaand New Zealand became self-governing dominions. The Labour Party emerged from an alliance of trade unions and small socialist groups inand suffragettes campaigned for women's right to vote before After the war, Britain received the League of Nations mandate over a number of former German and Ottoman colonies.
The British Empire reached its greatest extent, covering a fifth of the world's land surface and a quarter of its population.
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Anglo-Irish Treaty The rise of Irish nationalismand disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish Home Ruleled eventually to the partition of the island in Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom. Britain had still not recovered from the effects of the war when the Great Depression — occurred. This led to considerable unemployment and hardship in the old industrial areas, as well as political and social unrest in the s, with rising membership in communist and socialist parties.
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A coalition government was formed in Winston Churchill became prime minister and head of a coalition government in Despite the defeat of its European allies in the first year of the war, Britain and its Empire continued the fight alone against Germany.
Urban areas suffered heavy bombing during the Blitz. There were also eventual hard-fought victories in the Battle of the Atlanticthe North Africa campaign and the Burma campaign.